What levels of evidence need to be considered when reviewing a touchless disinfection system?

In the last post my colleague Dr Vikram Kanmukhla reviewed in detail the options for touchless disinfection systems as add on to manual cleaning and disinfection processes. In that post he reviewed the variety and depth of technologies. One of the overarching comments to that post is that all of...


Touchless or no-touch technologies for cleaning and disinfection

In the previous two posts , my colleagues have discussed the choice of disinfectants for manual cleaning and effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of manual cleaning. In this post, I would like to discuss the range of technologies available to assist with patient room cleaning & disinfection. These...


How effective is manual cleaning in hospitals?

Hospital cleaning depends on many factors, such as the frequencies, methodology and equipment used, monitoring and training of personnel. How these parameters influence the effectiveness of the cleaning process are nicely discussed by Dancer SJ (1,2). In previous posts we discussed the choices of...


Environmental manual cleaning and disinfection

In previous posts we have reviewed the difference between "clean" and hygienic (see here and here). In this post I wanted to delve deeper into the choices of disinfectants for manual cleaning. We describe cleaning by hand as manual cleaning as it requires physical intervention in order to reduce...


Whats the evidence for hand or glove contamination with nosocomial pathogens after touching environmental surfaces?  

In previous blogs we discussed how surfaces in close proximity to hospitalized patients become contaminated with a range of pathogens (see here). Our review of contamination of environmental solid surfaces, and soft surfaces demonstrated that these surfaces have a role in the infection process. In...


Biocides, Germicides, Sporicides and Antimicrobials-what's in a name?

In a recent blog post by Jon Otter ( I recommend you follow him also)  he reviewed antibiotics, anti-infectives and other infection related antimicrobials by their desired functionality and also built a hierarchy of these products. This post was really interesting, and made me think about where we...


Review of textiles and environmental soft surfaces as a vector for hospital acquired infections

There has been a rise in the data that supports the environment as one of the important modes of pathogen transmission that contributes significantly to hospital acquired infections (HAI).  For example, Gastmeier and his colleagues attributed the source of outbreaks to contaminated surfaces in...


Do linens and environmental soft surfaces playing a role in the infection process?

Textile products, also called soft surfaces are widely used in the hospital environment. Some of these textiles products or soft surfaces are in direct contact with the patients, such as blankets, sheets, pyjamas, towels, gowns, and pillowcases. Other fabric or textile products are used by the...


Do hard surfaces play a role in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens

As discussed in our previous blogs, surfaces with frequent hand contact and in close proximity to the patients are often the most colonized with pathogens. These pathogens can remain viable on these inanimate surfaces for prolonged periods of time, and over a wide range of environmental conditions....


What are the standards for contamination levels of surfaces in hospitals?

In our recent blog postings, we have examined some of the growing levels of evidence for contamination (both bacterial and fungal) of high touch surfaces in the environment. In addition those high touch surfaces are the same surfaces that are not only contaminated but also interacted with by...