Biocides, Germicides, Sporicides and Antimicrobials-what's in a name?

In a recent blog post by Jon Otter ( I recommend you follow him also)  he reviewed antibiotics, anti-infectives and other infection related antimicrobials by their desired functionality and also built a hierarchy of these products. This post was really interesting, and made me think about where we...


Review of textiles and environmental soft surfaces as a vector for hospital acquired infections

There has been a rise in the data that supports the environment as one of the important modes of pathogen transmission that contributes significantly to hospital acquired infections (HAI).  For example, Gastmeier and his colleagues attributed the source of outbreaks to contaminated surfaces in...


Do linens and environmental soft surfaces playing a role in the infection process?

Textile products, also called soft surfaces are widely used in the hospital environment. Some of these textiles products or soft surfaces are in direct contact with the patients, such as blankets, sheets, pyjamas, towels, gowns, and pillowcases. Other fabric or textile products are used by the...


Do hard surfaces play a role in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens

As discussed in our previous blogs, surfaces with frequent hand contact and in close proximity to the patients are often the most colonized with pathogens. These pathogens can remain viable on these inanimate surfaces for prolonged periods of time, and over a wide range of environmental conditions....


What are the standards for contamination levels of surfaces in hospitals?

In our recent blog postings, we have examined some of the growing levels of evidence for contamination (both bacterial and fungal) of high touch surfaces in the environment. In addition those high touch surfaces are the same surfaces that are not only contaminated but also interacted with by...


What environmental factors influence survival of microorganisms on surfaces?

Microorganisms have been found to remain viable in inanimate surfaces from days to even years (1). The longer a microorganism persists on a surface, the longer the contaminated surface may be a source of transmission and thus endanger a susceptible patient or healthcare worker of becoming the target...


Most touched and most contaminated surface review

In our recent blog posts we have reviewed a number of important topics. In this post I want to summarize some of the key points from our previous posts and combine these findings with a handy infographic to summarize visually some of the key points. To summarize some of our earlier posts; In our...


What surfaces are frequently touched in the hospital environment?

In previous posts (here and here) we have already reviewed bacterial and fungal nosocomial pathogens that are found in the hospital environment. We have also reviewed the variety of surfaces that can be colonized (here). These bacterial and fungal pathogens, which originate mainly from infected or...


What surfaces are contaminated in the hospital environment?

    As discussed in my previous posts, bacterial and fungal pathogens can remain viable on inanimate surfaces from days to months and in some cases even years.  These organisms can also survive over a wide range of temperatures, humidity, and exposure to sunlight. (1) In the current...